# Documentation

## DOIs at different levels

A DOI may refer to a journal or book (a title-level DOI), or to a specific article or chapter.

## Journals and DOIs

Like a set of nesting dolls, a journal may be made up of volumes, each containing a number of issues, each containing a number of articles. You can assign a DOI at each level, for example:

• journal-level-DOI (sometimes called the title-level-DOI) 10.5555/QYPF2031. Like an ISSN, it refers to the whole journal
• volume-level-DOI 10.5555/FFFU4804
• issue-level-DOI 10.5555/QKLE5634
• article-level-DOI 10.5555/CNBT7653

The role of the journal-level-DOI, volume-level-DOI, and issue-level-DOI is to link persistently to a point in the journal structure. These DOIs do not have any associated content, and it does not cost anything to register these DOIs.

However, article-level-DOIs do have associated content, and therefore a fee applies to register these DOIs.

## Books and DOIs

Like a set of nesting dolls, a book may be made up of chapters. Again, you can assign a DOI at each level, for example:

• book-level-DOI (sometimes called the title-level-DOI) 10.5555/ZAAR1365. Just like an ISBN, it refers to the whole book.
• chapter-level-DOI 10.5555/TFWD2627

Both book-level-DOIs and chapter-level-DOIs have associated content, and therefore a fee applies to register these DOIs.

Learn more about our fees for different content types, and how to construct your DOIs.

Page owner: Isaac Farley   |   Last updated 2020-April-08